dnstt download speed tests
I did some experiments of download performance of the DNS tunnel. tl;dr a DNS tunnel can go faster than you may think, but the choice of resolver matters a lot.
I tried downloading a 10 MB file through the tunnel, using a selection of resolvers and DNS transports. I cut off the download after 10 minutes. "none" is the special case of no intermediate recursive resolver (the tunnel client sends queries directly to the tunnel server). The server was located in Fremont, US and the client in Tokyo, JP. There was about 100 ms of latency between the two hosts. Download rates are the median of 5 trials. The dnstt tag was v0.20200430.0.
Cloudflare's DoH and DoT resolvers are both fast. Google's DoH resolvers is much faster than its DoT server (I noticed the DoT server terminating TCP connections every 200 KB or so). Comcast's DoH and DoT resolvers have about the same middling performance. Quad9's DoT resolver is notably slow; there's clearly something wrong there, whether it's the resolver or how the tunnel uses it. For comparison, the download rate of an untunnelled, direct TCP transfer was 4666.3 KB/s.
I repeated the experiment with iodine, an existing DNS tunnel. iodine works over plaintext UDP only. dnstt is faster than iodine in every case, except for the Quad9 DoT resolver. It is possible to run iodine over a DoH proxy; I didn't try that myself but Sebastian Neef reports 4–12 KB/s when tunneling iodine through dnscrypt-proxy.
This graph shows the 5 trials under each experimental condition and gives an idea of the variance. Steeper lines are better.